Clinical Psychology and the Philosophy of Science
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As this view holds that the mind and body are one and the same, it later became known as monism. Today, most psychologists reject a rigid dualist position: many years of research indicate that the physical and mental aspects of human experience are deeply intertwined. The fields of psychoneuroimmunology and behavioral medicine explicitly focus on this interconnection.
The term did not come into popular usage until the German idealist philosopher Christian Wolff used it in his Psychologia empirica and Psychologia rationalis — The late 19th century marked the start of psychology as a scientific enterprise.
Psychology as a self-conscious field of experimental study began in , when German scientist Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research in Leipzig. Often considered the father of psychology, Wundt was the first person to refer to himself as a psychologist and wrote the first textbook on psychology, entitled Principles of Physiological Psychology.
Wundt believed that the study of conscious thoughts would be the key to understanding the mind. His approach to the study of the mind was groundbreaking in that it was based on systematic and rigorous observation, laying the foundation for modern psychological experimentation. He systematically studied topics such as attention span, reaction time, vision, emotion, and time perception.
Wilhelm Wundt is considered by many to be the founder of psychology. He laid the groundwork for what would later become the theory of structuralism.
Edward B. This theory attempted to understand the mind as the sum of different underlying parts, and focused on three things: 1 the individual elements of consciousness; 2 how these elements are organized into more complex experiences; and 3 how these mental phenomena correlate with physical events. Titchener attempted to classify the structures of the mind much like the elements of nature are classified in the periodic table—which is not surprising, given that researchers were making great advancements in the field of chemistry during his time.
He believed that if the basic components of the mind could be defined and categorized, then the structure of mental processes and higher thinking could be determined. Like Wundt, Titchener used introspection to try to determine the different components of consciousness; however, his method used very strict guidelines for the reporting of an introspective analysis.
Structuralism was criticized because its subject of interest—the conscious experience—was not easily studied with controlled experimentation. As structuralism struggled to survive the scrutiny of the scientific method, new approaches to studying the mind were sought. One important alternative was functionalism, founded by William James in the late 19th century.
In functionalism, the brain is believed to have evolved for the purpose of bettering the survival chances of its carrier by acting as an information processor: its role is essentially to execute functions similar to the way a computer does. Psychology —Wundt and James: structuralism and functionalism : Here, the foundations of structuralism and functionalism are contrasted.
Debates and controversies in psychology have spanned the decades and continue to change over time. Psychological debates have spanned the decades and continue to change over time. With the release of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5 , psychologists continue to debate controversial issues in their field. What is normal or healthy behavior for one person may be unhealthy or ineffective for someone else. Behavior can be normal for an individual intrapersonal normality when it is consistent with the most common behavior for that person, even if that behavior leads to negative consequences.
Definitions of normality vary by person, time, place, and situation, and are overwhelmingly shaped by cultural and societal standards and norms.
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These standards and norms change over time, and perceptions of normality change along with them. Critics argue that perceptions of normality are inherently subject to value judgments, biases, and assumptions, and can have social ramifications. In , the British Psychological Society argued that the DSM-5 should consider mental disorders on a spectrum along with normality:.
One of the central debates in psychology involves the origin of human behavior. Is behavior caused by biological factors present in the human body nature , or is it caused by interactions between the individual and his or her environment nurture? Strict adherents of the nature philosophy often use genetic code as support for their theory.
Psychologists today generally believe that human behavior is affected by a combination of both biological and environmental factors. Many of the current debates in psychology can be seen in the recent changes to the DSM Autism is a neurological disorder that has become increasingly prevalent in recent years, affecting about 20 per 1, children in the United States in Disorders within the autism spectrum are characterized by impaired social interaction, impaired verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted or repetitive behavior.
For years, researchers have tried to find the cause of autism, and everything from vaccines to maternal depression have been cited but never proven. While the general treatment for autism is applied behavior analysis ABA , or other behavioral therapies, many people look for alternative treatments such as diet or supplements. Controversies surrounding the diagnosis and its treatment include the relevance of rating the severity of the disorder, and whether or not to include children with varying severity of ASD in the general-education population.
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In this treatment, child-specific reinforcers e. Reports of autism are on the rise : Reports of autism cases per 1, children increased dramatically in the US from to At the same time, transgender people seeking surgical or hormonal treatment have historically been forced to rely on the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in order to access the appropriate treatment, however stigmatizing the diagnosis may be. Within the depressive disorders of the DSM-5, bereavement exclusion no longer exists; this means that people who are in severe depressive states due to grief can be diagnosed with clinical depression.
Under the new guidelines, certain responses to grief could be labeled as pathological disorders, instead of being recognized as normal human experiences.
Electroconvulsive therapy ECT is a controversial approach to the treatment of severe mental illness that involves inducing minor seizures within the brain through electrical impulses. ECT has been dramatically improved over time and is generally used as a treatment of last resort for severe disorders—such as major depression, schizophrenia, or bipolar mania—that do not respond to other forms of treatment.
About 70 percent of patients are women.
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Controversy continues to surround ECT due to its side effects on memory and general cognition after treatment, as well as its debated level of effectiveness. While some studies have shown ECT to drastically improve symptoms with perhaps fewer side effects than some medications, other studies point to high rates of relapse. It is unknown why the treatment is effective in many cases of severe mental disorders. Skip to main content. Introduction to Psychology. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article.
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